Timeline: Israeli Intelligence, Espionage and Covert Operations:

 From 1974 to 1982

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This timeline includes intelligence and covert operations from 1974 to 1982, including the famous Entebbe rescue..


Israel Pre-State Intelligence Timeline | Israel Intelligence Timeline - 1948-1956 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1956-1960 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1961-1967 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1968-1973Israel Intelligence Timeline 1983-1991 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1992-present 


Intelligence gathering and covert operations  are part of the normal function of any state. Israel has spied, and been spied against. A great deal of the success of Israel, a tiny and weak state for most of its existence, and of the Zionist movement before the creation of the state, was due to its renowned information gathering and covert operations activities, carried out by the Mossad, the IDF and the Shabak. The exploits of Israeli intelligence have been lauded by its friends, and naturally enough, condemned by its enemies. Israeli intelligence has also had a number of failures, and some of them were responsible for key setbacks, such as failure to predict the Yom Kippur War.


These timelines provide detailed accounts of Israeli and Zionist covert activities since 1915.


Further reading:


A Timeline of Zionist and Israeli history provides further context and background  

Additional links Zionism and Israel - historical sources, Photo Gallery of Zionist History  and the history of Zionism and Modern Israel  and  Zionism & its Impact will help round out the picture.

A detailed timeline of the Six Dar War 1967 Six Day War Timeline (chronology)  


 Additional information (off site) Brief History of Israel and Palestine and Labor Zionism  The article  - Anti-Semitism includes a Timeline of Anti-Semitism



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Timeline: Israeli Intelligence, Espionage and Covert Operations:

 From 1974 to 1982


1974 The Greek Catholic archbishop Hilarion Capucci, who has smuggled weapons for the Palestine Liberating Organization (PLO) from Lebanon to Israel, is caught by the Israeli Security Agency (ISA) and imprisoned.
2 Apr 2, 1974: The Agranat Commission publishes its interim 40-page report. The recommendation is that CGS Major General Elazar, DMI Zeira, intelligence officer of Southern Command David Gedaliah, and head of the Egyptian desk in Military Intelligence (MI) Yonah Bendman be removed from their positions. The commission counsels pluralism of assessment in the Israeli intelligence community and the creation of a control unit to produce a "devil's advocate" evaluation. Shlomo Gazit is appointed head of AMAN (military intelligence) with promotion to major general; Gazit serves in this position until 1979. Yitzhak Hofi is appointed director of the Mossad.
June 27, 1976 Air France Flight 139 takes off from Athens en route to Paris. At about 12:30 P.M., less than 10 minutes after takeoff, the aircraft is hijacked and diverted to Benghazi in Libya. After seven hours on the tarmac there, during which the Airbus is refueled and one female hostage is allowed to disembark, it takes off again.
June 28, 1976 At 3:15 A.M., the aircraft lands at Entebbe International Airport in Uganda. The passengers are held hostage in the Old Terminal transit hall. The hijackers later release many of them, keeping only Israelis and Jews, whom they threaten to murder if the Israeli government does not comply with the captors' demand to release Palestinian prisoners. The Israeli government decides to undertake a military rescue mission to free the hostages after days of collecting intelligence and careful planning.
July 3-4, 1976 In Operation Yonatan, four IAF transport aircraft fly secretly from Israel and night-land with no aid from ground control at the Entebbe airport. They are followed by an air force jet with medical facilities flying into Jomo Kenyatta International Airport in Nairobi, Kenya. More than 100 Israeli troops, including the elite Sayeret Matkal (General Staff Commandos) unit, arrive to conduct the assault, assisted by some Mossad agents and with the support of the Kenyan government. In a superb military action, they free all but three of the hostages, who are killed, and return them safely to Israel. In addition to hostages, Yonatan Netanyahu, brother of Benjamin Netanyahu is killed in the operation. Excellent intelligence contributed greatly to the success of the operation.
1977 The Israeli intelligence community fails to perceive the seriousness of Egypt's President Anwar Sadat's peaceful intentions. The Kilowatt Group for international cooperation among intelligence services on counterterrorism is formed at the instigation of Israel, largely in response to the 1972 Munich massacre. The group is dominated by Israel because of its strong position in information exchange on Arab terror groups in Europe and the Middle East.
Feb. 1978: Yehoshua Saguy is promoted to major general and appointed the ninth head of AMAN (military intelligence).
1980 The Israeli intelligence community fails to predict the outbreak of the Iraqi war against Iran.
Jan. 4, 1980Izzat Nafsu, a former Israel Defense Forces (IDF) lieutenant and member of Israel's Circassian minority, is arrested on suspicion of treason and espionage for the Palestinians in Lebanon. He is brutally interrogated, makes a forced confession of his guilt, is tried, and is sentenced to 18 years in prison. After seven years in prison he is acquitted by the Israeli Supreme Court of the charges.
Dec. 1980 Avraham Shalom is appointed director of the Israeli Security Agency (ISA = GSS or Shabak).
June 7, 1981 The Israel Air Force (IAF) bombs the Iraqi nuclear reactor Tammuz-1 at Osirak in an attack code-named Operation Opera.
Sept. 12, 1982Nahum Admoni is unexpectedly appointed director of the Mossad after the person designated for the post, Major General Yekutiel Adam, is killed during the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in the first Lebanon war.
Sept. 28, 1982 The Israeli government initiates the Kahan  commission of inquiry into the events of September 16 at the Sabra and Shatila Palestinian refugee camps in Beirut.

Previous: Israeli Israel Intelligence Timeline 1968-1973  Next: Israel Intelligence Timeline 1983-1991

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 Timeline of Israeli Intelligence & Covert Ops