Time-Line (Chronology) of Ancient Israel and Jewish History before Zionism

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Ancient Israel to Rise of Zionism

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Timeline Ancient Israel to Rise of Zionism

1800? BCE
Abraham migrates to Canaan according to Jewish tradition.
1300? BCE Migration and conquest of Canaan by the Philistines and Israelite tribes. Map of Canaan.
1000? BCE Jewish conquest of Jerusalem; reign of David (maps); After the death of David's son, Solomon, the kingdom split into two: Israel in the north, Judea in Jerusalem and the south (maps).   Brief History of Early Palestine in maps.
721 BCE Fall of Israel (Northern Kingdom) to Assyria
586 BCE Fall of Judea (Southern Kingdom) to Babylon and destruction of the first temple
About 539 BCE Fall of Babylon. Jews allowed to return to Judea. Tradition has it that Ezra and Nehemia led this return, and later rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem, but the walls were apparently not built until 100 years later.
About 519 BCE Rebuilding of the Second Temple under Persian rule.
331 BCE Alexander the Great conquers Persia. The land was subject to Egyptian rule after his death, followed by Seleucid Syrian rule.
313 BCE Ptolemy of Egypt rules Jerusalem and Judea.
170 BCE Antiochus Ephiphanes rules Judea.
166 BCE Revolt of Judah Maccabee against Syrian Hellenic dynasty; Simon. 164 - Liberation of Jerusalem. Judah is named Friend of the Roman Senate and People; Rule of the Maccabees: 166 - Judah 160 -Jonathan 143 
About 61 BCE Roman conquest of Jerusalem by Pompei. Land is divided into various provinces (maps).
40 BCE Reign of Herod the Great; Herod conquered Jerusalem in 37 BCE. Herod began an extensive restoration of the temple about 20 BC
4 BCE Probable year of birth of Jesus. Jesus was crucified between 31 and 33 AD.
66-73 AD First Jewish revolt. Fall of the Jewish Second Temple to Romans in 70 AD.
133-135 Second Jewish revolt under Bar Kochba  crushed. Judea renamed Palestina. Jews are banned from Jerusalem by Hadrianus Caesar.
313 Roman Emperor Constantine legalizes Christianity
614 Persians conquer Judea and Jerusalem..
628 Emperor Heraclius defeats Sassanid Persians, reconquers Jerusalem..
About 638 Arab conquest of Jerusalem. (slightly earlier or later according to different sources). Caliph Omar provides the Christians of Jerusalem with a Covenant guaranteeing their protection. Land  divided into the Jund of filastin, in the south (capital in Al-Lod and later in Ramlah), and the Jund of Urdunn in the north, with capital in Tiberias (Tabariyeh).
969 Fatimid conquest. Churches and synagogues of Jerusalem destroyed.

Battle of Manzikert. The Byzantine emperor Romanus IV Diogenes is defeated by the Seljuk Turks, opening Asia Minor to Turkish invasion. Seljuks devastate Jerusalem.

1099 Crusaders conquer Jerusalem, slaughter most Jewish and Moslem inhabitants, expel Jews.
1141 Poet Yehuda Halevi dies in Jerusalem.
1187 Salah-ed-din (Saladin) reconquers Jerusalem
1244 Rise of the Mamlukes. Jerusalem taken by Muslims.
1260 Battle of Ayn Jalut (Nazereth) - Holagu (Mongols) defeated.
1291 Crusaders defeated at Acre and evicted from Palestine.
1517 Ottoman Turkish conquest of Palestine.
1537-41 Muslim walls built around Jerusalem by Suleiman the Magnificent.
1626 - 1676 False Messiah Sabbatai Zevi.


Ottoman Sultan invites Rabbi Haim Abulafia (1660-1744),  Kabbalist and Rabbi of Izmir, to come to rebuild the city of Tiberias; thousands of Jews immigrate to the land in a wave of Messianic fervor, including  Rabbi Moses Haim Luzzatto (1707-1746).  
1799 Napoleon conquers Jaffa but retreats before Acco (Acre); 1799 - Napoleon's Proclamation of a Jewish State was stillborn, and his declaration of equal rights for Jews was repealed in part in 1806.
1831 Egyptian Conquest of Palestine area by Mehmed Ali of Egypt, who rebelled against the Ottomans. He was forced to withdraw in 1840 under pressure by European allies.
1834 Jerusalem Arab families including the Abu Ghosh clan revolt against Egyptian rule. The rebellion is eventually crushed.
1839 Tanzimat - reorganization program- is proclaimed in the Ottoman empire.
1840 Blood libel (accusation that Jews kill Christian children to use their blood for Passover Matzoth) against Damascus Jewry
1843 First Zionist writings of Rabbi Alcalay and of Rabbi Kalischer, ( Emuna Yeshara, Minhat Yehuda) .
1844 First census in Jerusalem shows 7120 Jews, 5760 Muslims, 3390 Christians.
1856 Ottoman reforms (Tanzimat) - including requirement to register ownership of land and pay taxes on it. Laemel school founded in Jerusalem, provides secular as well as religious education, infuriating orthodox Jews.
1860 First Jewish settlement (Mishkenot Sha'ananim) outside Jerusalem walls.
1861 The Zion Society is formed in Frankfort, Germany; Moses Hess writes "Rome and Jerusalem." Pub 1862
1870s Formation of 'Hovevei Tziyon in Russia
1878 First Zionist Settlement - Petah Tikwa;  Naphtali Herz Imber writes Tikvatenu (Our Hope), later adopted as the Zionist anthem and the Israeli national anthem, Hatiqvah (Hatikva).
1881-84 Pogroms in Russia -  (1881-1884).Leon Pinsker  writes Auto-Emancipation in 1882; formation of Bilu; beginning of the First Aliya (wave of immigration) which lasted until 1903. The First Aliya was characterized by plantation settlements funded by the Baron de Rothschild beginning in 1883. Formation of Hibbat Tziyon federation of 'Hovevei Tziyon in 1884, headed by Pinsker.
1890 Publicist Nathan Birnbaum coins the word Sionismus - Zionism.
1892 Railroad from Jaffa to Jerusalem. The Jerusalem railway station was to appear in the first movie newsreels of Palestine.
1893-6 Dreyfus Affair - In France, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, falsely charged with espionage. Ultimately he is exonerated with the help of Emile Zola, but the trial and attendant wave of antisemitism cause many Jews to rethink their commitment to assimilation.  The trial and other influences led Theodor Herzl to write Die Judenstadt - The Jewish State.
1897 First Zionist Congress in Basle, Switzerland.

Zionism and Israel Timeline Sections:

Israel & Zionism History Timeline (summary)

Israel, Palestine and Jews - Ancient times to 1897

Zionism and Palestine Timeline - 1897 to 1947

Israel & Zionism - 1948-1966

Israel & Zionism- 1967-1992

Israel & Zionism - 1993 present

This timeline is intended to give you an overview and reference points for major events in the history of Israel. Links to Zionism and Israel - historical sources, Photo Gallery of Zionist History  and the history of Zionism and Modern Israel  and  Zionism & its Impact will help round out the picture.

Other Zionism and Israel Timelines:

A detailed timeline of the Six Dar War: 1967 Six Day War Timeline (chronology)  

A detailed timeline of the Israel war of Independence: 1948 Israel War of Independence (Arab-Israeli war) Timeline (Chronology) Time-Line: Anti-Semitism


Intelligence: Israel Pre-State Intelligence Timeline | Israel Intelligence Timeline - 1948-1956 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1956-1960 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1961-1967 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1968-1973 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1974-1982 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1983-1991 | Israel Intelligence Timeline 1992-present 


External: Second Intifada Timeline Timeline: Second Intifada 2005 to Present


 Additional information (off site): Brief History of Israel and Palestine and Labor Zionism  The article  - Anti-Semitism includes a Timeline of Anti-Semitism



Palestinian Terror Chronologies and Statistics - Main Page

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